A NSW Government website
Public Service Commission


Alfes, K., Truss, C., Soane, E.C., Rees, C., & Gatenby, M., 2010, Creating an engaged workforce. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/253279910_Creating_an_Engaged_Workforce_CIPD_Research_Report

Attridge, M., 2009, Measuring the managing employee work engagement: A review of the research and business literature, Journal of Workplace Behavioural Health, 24:4, 383­–398.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2015a, National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social survey, 2014–15, Table 20.1: Labour force characteristics, by state or territory, remoteness area and Indigenous status, persons aged 15–64 years – 2014–15 (estimate), data cube: Labour force characteristics, by state, remoteness area and Indigenous status – 2014–15, cat. no. 4714.0, viewed 10 September 2019, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4714.02014-15?OpenDocument

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2015b, Disability, ageing and carers, Australia: Summary of findings, 2015, Table 1.3: Persons with disability, by age and sex – 2012 and 2015, proportion of persons, data cube: New South Wales, cat. no. 44300DO001_2015, viewed 10 September 2019, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4430.02015?OpenDocument

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2015c, Disability, ageing and carers, Australia: Summary of findings, 2015, Table 10.1: Persons with disability, by age and sex – 2012 and 2015, proportion of persons, data cube: New South Wales, cat. no. 44300DO001_2015, viewed 10 September 2019, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/4430.02015?OpenDocument

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016a, Census of population and housing, New South Wales (STE) (state/territory), Age of population single year, labour force status, cat. no. 2006.0, TableBuilder. Findings based on ABS TableBuilder data.

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016b, Census of population and housing: Reflecting Australia – stories from the census, 2016, Table 1: Indigenous status by state and territory, data cube: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, cat. no. 2071.0, viewed 10 September 2019, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/2071.02016?OpenDocument

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016c, New South Wales (STE) (state/territory), Table G09: Country of birth of person by age by sex, general community profile, cat. no. 2001.0, viewed 10 September 2019, http://quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/1?opendocument

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016d, New South Wales (STE) (state/territory), Working population profile, Table W05a: Status in employment by country of birth of person by sex, cat. no. 2006.0, viewed 10 September 2019, http://quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/1?opendocument

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2018a, Regional population by age and sex, Australia, 2018, cat. no. 3235.0, viewed 11 September 2019, https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/3235.0Main%20Features22018?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3235.0&issue=2018&num=&view=

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2018b, Australian demographic statistics, Australia, Table 04: Estimated resident population, states and territories, time series spreadsheet, cat. no. 3101.0, viewed 06 September 2019, https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3101.0Dec%202018?OpenDocument

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2018c, Labour force, Australia, Table 04: Labour force status by sex, New South Wales – trend, seasonally adjusted and original, time series spreadsheet, cat. no. 6202.0, viewed 06 September 2019, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/6202.0Jul%202018?OpenDocument

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2019a, Labour force, Australia, detailed – electronic delivery, Table 16: Labour force status by labour market region (ASGS) and sex, cat. no. 6291.0.55.001, viewed 11 September 2019, https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/6291.0.55.001Jun%202019?OpenDocument

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2019b, Labour force, Australia, detailed, quarterly, May 2019, Table RQ2: Employed persons by labour market region (ASGS), occupation major group (ANZSCO) and sex, annual averages of the preceding four quarters, year to August 1999 onwards: Pivot table, cat. no. 6291.0.55.003, viewed 12 September 2019, https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/6291.0.55.003May%202019?OpenDocument

Bartlett, J.E., & Bartlett, M.E., 2011, Workplace bullying: An integrative literature review, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13:1, 69–84.

Bidwell, M., 2011, Paying more to get less: The effects of external hiring versus internal mobility, Administrative Science Quarterly, 56:3, 369–407.

Cartwright, S., & Holmes, N., 2006, The meaning of work: The challenge of regaining employee engagement and reducing cynicism, Human Resource Management Review, 16:2, 199–208.

Cooke, R.A., & Rousseau, D.M., 1988, Behavioural norms and expectations: A quantitative approach to the assessment of organisational culture, Group & Organisation Management, 13:3, 245–273.

Deloitte, 2011, Only skin deep? Re-examining the business case for diversity. Retrieved from: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/au/Documents/human-capital/deloitte-au-hc-diversity-skin-deep-2011.pdf

de Vries, J.A., 2015, Champions of gender equality: Female and male executives as leaders of gender change, Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 34:1, 21–36.

Digital NSW, 2019, Digital government. Retrieved from: https://www.digital.nsw.gov.au/digital-transformation/digital-government-0

Eggers, W.D., O’Leary, J., & Datar, A., 2019, The future of work in government – Navigating a shifting talent landscape. Retrieved from: https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/industry/public-sector/future-of-work-in-government.html

Feijó, F.R., Gräf, D.D., Pearce, N., & Fassa, A.G., 2019, Risk factors for workplace bullying: A systematic review, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16:11, 1–25.

Fernandez, S., & Rainey, H.G., 2006, Managing successful organizational change in the public sector, Public Administration Review, 66:2, 168–176.

Fevre, R., Robinson, A., Lewis, D., & Jones, T., 2013, The ill-treatment of employees with disabilities in British workplaces, Work, Employment & Society, 27:2, 288–307.

Giorgi, G., Perminiene, M., Montani, F., Fiz-Perez, J., Mucci, N., & Arcangeli, G., 2016, Detrimental effects of workplace bullying: Impediment of self-management competence via psychological distress, Frontiers in Psychology, 7:60, 1–11.

Grant, R.M., 1991, The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: Implications for strategy formulation, California Management Review, 33:3, 114–135.

Hallsworth, M., 2011, System stewardship: The future of policy making? Retrieved from: https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/System%20Stewardship.pdf

Harder, H.G., Wagner S., & Rash, J., 2016, Mental illness in the workplace: Psychological disability management, Routledge.

Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L., & Hayes T.L., 2002, Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87:2, 268–279.

Healy, J., Nicholson, D., & Gahan, P., 2017, The future of work in Australia: Anticipating how new technologies will reshape labour markets, occupations and skill requirements. Retrieved from: https://education.nsw.gov.au/our-priorities/innovate-for-the-future/education-for-a-changing-world/resource-library/research-report/future-frontiers-analytical-report-the-future-of-work-in-australia/The-Future-of-Work-in-Australia-analytical-report.pdf

Hillebrand, B., & Biemans, W.G., 2003, The relationship between internal and external cooperation: Literature review and propositions, Journal of Business Research, 56, 735–743.

Jensen, U.T., Moynihan, D.P., & Salomonsen, H.H., 2018, Communicating the vision: How face-to-face dialogue facilitates transformational leadership, The American Society for Public Administration, 78:3, 350–361.

Mor Barak, M.E., Lizano, E.L., Kim, A., Duan, L., Rhee, M., Hsiao, H., & Brimhall, K.C., 2016, The promise of diversity management for climate of inclusion: A state-of-the-art review and meta-analysis, Human Service Organisations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 40:4, 305–333.

North, M.S., & Fiske, S.T., 2012, An inconvenienced youth? Ageism and its potential intergenerational roots, Psychological Bulletin, 138:5, 982–997.

NSW Public Service Commission, 2018, Diversity and inclusion in the NSW public sector: A conversation. Retrieved from: https://www.psc.nsw.gov.au/workplace-culture---diversity/diversity-and-inclusion/a-conversation/a-conversation

Pelster, B., Johnson, D., Stempel, J., & van der Vyver, B., 2017, Careers and learning: Real time, all the time, in Pelster, B., & Schwartz, J. (Eds.), Rewriting the rules for the digital age: 2017 Deloitte Global Human Capital Trends, pp. 29–37, Deloitte University Press. Retrieved from: https://www2.deloitte.com/cn/en/pages/human-capital/articles/global-human-capital-trends-2017.html

Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Matz-Costa, C., 2008, The multi-generational workforce: Workplace flexibility and engagement, Community, Work and Family, 11:2, 215–229.

Radford, K., Chapman, G., Bainbridge, H.T.J., & Halvorsen, B., 2018, The ageing population in Australia: Implications for the workforce, in Werth, S., & Brownlow, C. (Eds.), Work and identity: Contemporary perspectives on workplace diversity, pp. 39–54, Basingstoke, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.

Rynes, S.L., Bretz, R.D., & Gerhart, B., 1991, The importance of recruitment in job choice: A different way of looking, Personnel Psychology, 44:3, 487–521.

Samnani, A., & Singh, P., 2012, 20 years of workplace bullying research: A review of the antecedents and consequences of bullying in the workplace, Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 17:6, 581–589.

Sasse, T., & Norris, E., 2019, Moving on: The costs of high staff turnover in the civil service. Retrieved from: https://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/IfG_staff_turnover_WEB.pdf

Schein, E. H., 1990, Organizational culture, American Psychologist, 45:2, 109–119.

Scottish Executive Social Research, 2007, Employee engagement in the public sector: A review of literature. Retrieved from: https://www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20170703104438/http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2007/05/09111348/0

Select Committee on the Future of Work and Workers, 2018, Hope is not a strategy – our shared responsibility for the future of work and workers. Retrieved from: https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Future_of_Work_and_Workers/FutureofWork/Report

Somaya, D., Williamson, I.O., & Lorinkova, N., 2008, Gone but not lost: The different performance impacts of employee mobility between co-operators versus competitors, The Academy of Management Journal, 51:5, 936–953.

Spence-Laschinger, H.K., Wong, C.A., Cummings, G.G., & Grau, A.L., 2014, Resonant leadership and workplace empowerment: The value of positive organizational cultures in reducing workplace incivility, Nursing Economic$, 32:1, 5–15.

Stouten, J., Rousseau, D.M., & de Cremer, D., 2018, Successful organizational change: Integrating the management practice and scholarly literatures, Academy of Management Annals, 12:2, 752–788.

Thomas, M., & Gilfillan, G., 2018, Budget Review 2018–19 Index: Workforce participation measures. Retrieved from: https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/BudgetReview201819/Workforce

United Nations, 2018, World urbanisation prospects: The 2018 revision. Retrieved from: https://population.un.org/wup/Country-Profiles/